< Global Challenges >

Reduced Inequalities

SDG 10

Inequalities based on income, sex, age, disability, sexual orientation, race, class, ethnicity, religion and opportunity continue to persist across the world, within and among countries. Inequality threatens long-term social and economic development, harms pov-erty reduction and destroys people's sense of fulfilment and self-worth. This, in turn, can breed crime, disease and environmental degradation.

Most importantly, we cannot achieve sustainable development and make the planet better for all if people are excluded from opportunities, services, and the chance for a better life. Despite progress in some areas, income inequality continues to rise in many parts of the world.

In today's world, we are all interconnected. Problems and challenges, be they poverty, climate change, migration or economic crises are never just con-fined to one country or region. Even the richest countries still have com-munities living in abject poverty. The oldest democracies still wrestle with racism, homopho-bia and transphobia, and religious intolerance. Global inequality affects us all, no matter who we are or where we are from.
Reducing inequality requires transformative change. Greater efforts are needed to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, and invest more in health, education, social protection and decent jobs especially for young people, migrants and other vulnerable communities.

Within countries, it is important to empower and promote inclusive social and economic growth. We can ensure equal opportunity and reduce inequalities of income if we eliminate discriminatory laws, policies and practices.

Among countries, we need to ensure that developing countries are better represented in decision-making on global issues so that solutions can be more effective, credible and accountable.

Governments and other stakeholders can also promote safe, regular and responsible migration, including through planned and well-managed policies, for the millions of people who have left their homes seeking better lives due to war, discrimination, poverty, lack of opportunity and other drivers of migration.

Facts and Figures

In 2016, over 64.4% of products exported by the least developed countries to world markets faced zero tariffs, an increase of 20% since 2010.
3 times
Evidence from developing countries shows that children in the poorest 20% of the populations are still up to 3 times more likely to die before their fifth birthday than children in the richest quintiles.
5 times
Social protection has been significantly extended globally, yet persons with disabilities are up to 5 times more likely than average to incur catastrophic health expenditures.
3 times
Despite overall declines in maternal mortality in most developing countries, women in rural areas are still up to 3 times more likely to die while giving birth than women living in urban centers.
Up to 30% of income inequality is due to inequality within households, including between women and men. Women are also more likely than men to live below 50% of the median income.
Women have as much access to financial services as men in just 60% of the countries assessed and to land ownership in just 42% of the countries assessed.

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